First of all, glue, nails and tightening pliers are used when making shoes by hand. Of course there are more components that go into the shoe when handcrafting it but now it’s not about that.
Secondly, when we make shoes the special glue is used (they act as a reinforcement in the shoes so it has the form of the last that we need) they are stiffer in the final version, but after a few days of walking the leather fo the shoe and the glue inside adapts to the foot and all of its smallest parts- the shoes do not lose their shape and they are way more comfortable because when you walk with them they kind of customize their form to your feet from inside, so they adjust just like your feet needs.👌
For comparison, factory-made shoes are made using steam and tightening mechanisms or robots, the first time the steam-covered footwear is worn, it will be soft immediately, but after 3-4 months. such shoes lose their shape, distort and lose their aesthetic appearance, that’s it. 💁🏼♀️